MIAMI– Some people suffering pain from cancer and other chronic diseases turn to marijuana to ease their suffering, but much of that relief may come from simply believing weed will help, a new study found.
In research, the tendency to have positive expectations that a dummy pill, procedure or treatment will help is called the placebo effect.
“The placebo response amounted to 67% of the pain relief associated with genuine cannabinoids,” said lead author Karin Jensen, an associate professor and research group leader in the pain neuroimaging lab at the Karolinska Institutet in the Stockholm area.
“Factors such as patients’ expectations of relief are likely to play a role in the analgesic effects associated with cannabis-based treatments,” Jensen said in an email.
The results of the recent study, , echo those of another large 2021 analysis of the available evidence by the International Association for the Study of Pain. Based on those findings, the association against the use of marijuana for pain.
“There is not enough high-quality human clinical safety and efficacy evidence to allow IASP to endorse the general use of cannabis and cannabinoids for pain at this time,” the association said at the time.
A 2020 study, for example, found using marijuana before entering the hospital for a surgical procedure People who used weed beforehand also needed more anesthesia during surgery, and undergoing anesthesia can be risky for some people, such as older adults or those with chronic illnesses such as diabetes. Marijuana users also needed more opioids during recovery.
Another 2020 analysis of six randomized control trials that included nearly 1,500 cancer patients in the United Kingdom and Europe found between the people who used cannabis and those who took dummy pills. In the study, some cannabis users experienced side effects at times severe enough to cause dropout from the studies. Reported side effects included dizziness, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and sleepiness.
“I think we set up patients to expect a certain kind of outcome,” said experimental psychologist Harriet de Wit, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral science at the University of Chicago who studies the placebo effect.
“Without a doubt, some people are going to expect to get the active drug, and they’ll experience some of those positive outcomes. That’s true with antidepressants; it’s true with pain medications,” said de Wit, who was not involved in the new study on cannabis.
“It’s an interesting and very real phenomenon,” she added. “It’s certainly not ‘all in your head.’ And yet there are some brain circuits that are involved in creating those thoughts and those expectations.”
The placebo effect was fris. It soon became the basis of many of the horrifying treatments physicians of the time used, such as bleeding, blistering and leeching, to name a few mentioned.
“The enormous power of the placebo helps explain why physicians continued to be useful, respected and highly honored members of society despite the painful, abhorrent, unscientific and often dangerous treatments they prescribed,” wrote author Charmane Eastman, founding director of the Biological Rhythms Research Laboratory at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago.
In modern clinical trials, researchers typically give the medication being tested to half of the study participants, while a so-called sugar pill goes to an equally matched group of people. Neither group is supposed to know which pill they received. If it’s adouble even the researchers don’t know which pill the participants swallowed.
But sometimes people can tell, if the pill produces an effect that might be felt, such as a marijuana high. And even if they can’t tell, people are known to believe that they did indeed get the experimental dose.
In fact, the optimistic attitude generated by a placebo can be powerful enough to affect study results dramatically. For example, the placebo effect can account for 50% to 75% of the positive results found in antidepressant drug trials,.
Partly to counter this effect, scientists do not consider a study’s results significant until they rise above chance.
The new research examined 20 studies using cannabis for pain control in over 1,450 people between the ages of 33 and 62. All the studies were conducted as double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials — meaning that even the researchers did not know which study participant received cannabis or a dummy treatment.
Researchers found no difference in self-reported pain reduction between the use of weed or placebo in the clinical trials: Both showed a large improvement in pain. There was also no difference between length of treatment — 45 days or several months — both showed pain improvement.
In clinical trials where blinding was most successful — people had no idea which treatment they were getting — the placebo response was highest. Participants reported their pain to be moderate to significantly less intense after treatment with a placebo compared with before treatment.
A unique part of the study looked at the role of news and social media for the placebo effect in cannabis clinical trials, Jensen said. Researchers found positive media coverage after each of the cannabis clinical trials, even when the study results were less than spectacular, she said.
“The positive and extensive media attention may shape placebo responses in subsequent clinical trials, yet the current study is not powered to address this possibility,” the study said.
More research is needed to understand if this shaping of placebo responses actually happens, Jensen said.
“It’s really hard to say where people get their information of what they expect the drug will do,” de Wit said. “I don’t think you can explain the placebo effect or blame it on social media. But you could say that’s where they got the expectation that this drug would relieve their pain — there’s a lot of social media saying cannabis is good for everything under the sun.”
Pope in Hungary meets with Ukrainian refugees, Russian envoy
Pope Francis plunged into both sides of Russia’s war with Ukraine on Saturday, greeting some of the 2.5 million Ukrainian refugees who have fled across the border to Hungary during a public prayer service and then meeting privately with an envoy of the Russian Orthodox Church that has strongly supported the war.
Francis maintained the Vatican’s tradition of diplomatic neutrality during his second day in Budapest, where he’s on a weekend visit to minister to Hungary’s Catholic faithful.
Starting the day, he thanked Hungarians for welcoming Ukrainian refugees and urged them to help anyone in need. He called for a culture of charity in a country where the prime minister has justified firm anti-immigration policies with fears that migration threatens Europe’s Christian culture.
Speaking in the white-brick St. Elizabeth’s church, named for a princess who renounced her wealth to care for the poor, Francis recalled that the Gospel instructs Christians to show love and compassion to all, especially those experiencing poverty and “even those who are not believers.”
“The love that Jesus gives us and commands us to practice can help to uproot the evils of indifference and selfishness from society, from our cities and the places where we live — indifference is a plague —- and to rekindle hope for a new, more just and fraternal world, where all can feel at home,” he said.
Hungary’s nationalist government has implemented firm anti-immigration policies and refused to accept many asylum-seekers trying to enter the country through its southern border, leading to prolonged legal disputes with the European Union.
The conservative populist prime minister, Viktor Orbán, has said that migration threatens to replace Europe’s Christian culture. Orbán, who has held office since 2010, has hinged multiple election campaigns on the threats he alleges that migrants and refugees pose to Hungarians.
While Orbán’s government has consistently rejected asylum-seekers from the Middle East and Africa, around 2.5 million Ukrainians fleeing war in their country found open doors. Around 35,000 of the refugees remain in Hungary and have registered for temporary protection there, according to the U.N.
One who has chosen to stay was Olesia Misiats, a nurse who worked in a Kyiv COVID-19 hospital when she fled with her mother and two daughters on Feb. 24, 2022 — the day Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine.
First she went to the Netherlands, but high costs compelled her to move to Hungary, where she said she has found an apartment and given birth to her third daughter, Mila, who was in the pews Saturday with her mother and sister.
“Here it’s safe,” Misiats said of her new life. She said that she hopes to return to Kyiv one day, but for now she and her children are adapting. “I want to go back home. There it’s my life — it was my life,” she said. “But the war changed my life.”
Immediately after greeting and encouraging the refugees, Francis visited the Greek Catholic church next door, which has been providing aid to refugees. And then he met with the Russian Orthodox Church’s representative in Hungary, Metropolitan Hilarion, who developed close relations with the Vatican during his years as the Russian church’s foreign minister. The Vatican said the 20-minute meeting at the Holy See’s embassy in Budapest was “cordial.”
The Russian church’s strong support for the Kremlin’s war has rankled the Vatican and prevented a second papal meeting with Patriarch Kirill, the head of the Russian Orthodox Church and an ally of Russian President Vladimir Putin. Francis and Kirill had a 2016 encounter in Cuba that marked the first between a pope and the head of the Russian church. They had planned a second one in June, but the meeting has been indefinitely postponed over Kirill’s support for the war.
In a statement, Hilarion’s office said that he briefed Francis on the social and educational activities of the Russian church in Hungary and its relations with the Catholic Church here. He said that he gave the pope an Italian translation of a six-volume opus on the life of Christ.
Francis’ visit to Hungary, his second in as many years, is bringing him as close as he’s come to the front lines of the war. Upon arriving in Budapest on Friday, he denounced the “adolescent belligerence” that had brought war back to European soil and demanded the EU recover its values of peaceful unity to end
As battle for Sudan continues, civilian deaths top 400
– Gunfire and heavy artillery fire persisted Saturday in parts of Sudan’s capital Khartoum, residents said, despite the extension of a cease-fire between the country’s two top generals, whose battle for power has killed hundreds and sent thousands fleeing for their lives.
With ordinary Sudanese caught in the crossfire, the civilian death toll jumped Saturday to 411 people, according to the Sudan Doctors’ Syndicate, which monitors casualties. In some areas in and around the capital, residents reported that shops were reopening and normalcy gradually returning as the scale of fighting dwindled after the shaky truce. But in other areas, terrified residents reported explosions thundering around them and fighters ransacking houses.
Now in its third week, the fighting has wounded 2,023 civilians, the syndicate added, although the true toll is expected to be much higher. The Sudanese Health Ministry put the overall death toll, including fighters, at 528, with 4,500 wounded. In the city of Genena, the provincial capital of war-ravaged West Darfur, intensified violence has killed 89 people, the Doctors’ Syndicate said.
Khartoum, a city of some 5 million people, has been transformed into a front line in the grinding conflict between Gen. Abdel Fattah Burhan, the commander of Sudan’s military, and Gen. Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo, who leads the powerful paramilitary group known as the Rapid Support Forces. The outbreak of violence has dashed once-euphoric hopes for a democratic transition in Sudan after a popular uprising helped oust former dictator Omar al-Bashir.
Foreign countries continued to evacuate their citizens while hundreds of thousands of Sudanese fled across borders. The first convoy organized by the United States to evacuate hundreds of American citizens from the conflict reached the coastal city of Port Sudan Saturday after a dangerous overland journey escorted by armed drones.
Britain meanwhile was ending its evacuation flights Saturday, after demand for spots on the planes declined. The United Arab Emirates announced Saturday it had started evacuating its own citizens along with nationals of 16 other countries.
Over 50,000 Sudanese refugees — mostly women and children — have crossed over to Chad, Egypt, South Sudan and the Central African Republic, the United Nations said, raising fears of regional instability. Ethnic fighting and turmoil has scarred South Sudan and the Central African Republic for years while a 2021 coup has derailed Chad’s own democratic transition.
Those who escape the fighting in Khartoum face more dangers on their way to safety. The route to Port Sudan, where ships evacuate people via the Red Sea, has proven long, exhausting and risky. Hatim el-Madani, a former journalist, said that paramilitary fighters were stopping refugees at roadblocks outside Khartoum, demanding they hand over their phones and valuables.
“There’s an outlaw, bandit-like nature to the RSF,” he said, referring to Dagalo’s Rapid Support Forces. “They don’t have a supply line in place. That could get worse in the coming days.”
Airlifts from the country amid the chaotic fighting also posed challenges, with a Turkish evacuation plane even hit by gunfire outside Khartoum on Friday.
On Saturday — despite a cease-fire extended under heavy international pressure early Friday — clashes continued around the presidential palace, headquarters of the state broadcaster and a military base in Khartoum, residents said. The battles sent thick columns of black smoke billowing over the city skyline.
But in other areas, residents reported signs that the cease-fire had taken hold.
“We are not hearing the bombs as we did before, so we’re hoping that this means they will go back to a political process,” said Osman Mirgany, a columnist and editor of the daily al-Tayar, who assessed it was safe enough on Friday to return home to Khartoum after seeking refuge in a far-flung village.
But Khartoum residents are forced to live side by side with armed fighters. Many RSF militants have moved into civilian homes and taken over stores and hospitals in the capital. The paramilitary group even transformed Mirgany’s newsroom into a makeshift base, he said. Residents also must cope without sufficient electricity and running water, among other basic supplies.
“For the past 14 days we’ve suffered from a lack of everything,” Mirgany said.
Residents in the city of Omdurman, west of Khartoum, have been waiting at least three days to get fuel — complicating their escape plans.
The U.N. relief coordinator, Martin Griffiths, said that U.N. offices in Khartoum, as well as the cities of Genena and Nyala in Darfur had been attacked and looted. Genena’s main hospital was also leveled in the fighting, Sudan’s health ministry said.
“This is unacceptable — and prohibited under international law,” Griffiths said.
Will you marry me?’ Bulgarian woman contacts News 6 to expose international romance scheme
A 52-year-old Bulgarian woman currently working in Ireland is the latest target of international imposters who use stolen photos of a handsome Carnival Cruise Line officer in an online dating scheme that steals victims’ money.
Alessandro Cinquini, 29, who is known on dating sites as “Alex the Officer,” first contacted News 6 in March 2022 when he discovered his photographs were being used to fool women from Florida to India.
Vanya Dimova contacted News 6 after seeing our reports about Cinquini on the web.
She said an Alex imposter sent her photos and videos of lavish gifts that included a shimmering engagement ring.
Alessandro Cinquini has gone public to warn women across the globe that imposters have stolen his photographs from social media platforms to create “catfish” style profiles that offer love but target money.
News 6 sent 15 questions to her in advance so Dimova could translate and prepare responses during a Zoom interview.
She said she met the Alex imposter on Instagram back on March 26. According to Dimova, the conversation went from casual to romantic very quickly.
“After two days, he told me he was in love with me,” Danya told News 6. “Every day, he tell me he want to buy a house in Bulgaria and live together.”
Cinquini told News 6 the imposters have never stopped using his photos and he assured us he never contacted Dimova.
They have my old pictures from my old life,” Cinquini said. “Most of those pictures aren’t on my Instagram anymore. I canceled them years ago.”
He told News 6 he currently works as a fleet operation center watch officer for Carnival Cruise Line.
Danya sent News 6 a voice message from a man claiming to be Alex.
“I love you, I love you,” the man said.
The voice sounded nothing like Cinquini
Danya said that voice recording was the only evidence she has. She never met the imposter face-to-face or spoke to him on FaceTime or Zoom.
Danya said she became suspicious when the imposter asked her to pay the shipping charges for her gifts. He sent her a Bank of America receipt to prove his account had been frozen.
According to the Federal Trade Commission, romance scams in the U.S alone netted an estimated $1.3 billion last year, impacting 70,000 men and women.
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